Editor's note: Working at height is one of the dangerous operations involved in many industries, but the construction industry is particularly important. As the first of the "five major injuries", the safety management of aerial work platforms has always been the focus of China's construction industry. On December 29, 2014, a scaffold collapsed at the construction site of the Tsinghua Affiliated High School in Beijing, a high-altitude accident that killed 10 people and injured 4 others. In order to learn lessons from related accidents, analyze the current situation of working safety at high altitudes, and improve the prevention and handling capabilities of falling accidents at high altitudes, this magazine interviewed Li Shoulin, president of the Construction Mechanization Branch of the Chinese Academy of Building Sciences.
Working at height involves a large number of people. Protecting the safety of working staff at the height is the most important task in their work. Ignoring safety issues in the field of working at height will cause irreparable losses to individuals, families and society. Could you please briefly introduce the overall situation of safety management of high altitude operations in China at present? What outstanding problems do you think?
Li Shoulin: The Chinese construction industry market currently has more than 46 million industrial workers, and it is vital to protect the life, health, and safety of construction workers. With the further development of China's urbanization and industrialization construction, high-rise buildings and their supporting facilities have increased. Building construction, daily operations, and subsequent maintenance and maintenance need to organize construction personnel to perform high-altitude operations, and the risks also increase. According to statistics from the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (hereinafter referred to as the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development), falling accidents at high altitudes have become the first damage in the construction industry, and fatal accidents caused each year have accounted for 50% to 60% of the total accidents. Relevant national standards have defined and classified high altitude operations. According to the provisions of GB / T3608—2008 “Classification of Working at High Altitude”, any work performed at a height above 2m (including 2m) at the reference height of the fall height is likely to be referred to as high-altitude work. Working at height refers to a special situation in working at height, which is generally at a height of more than 20m.
JGJ80—1991 "Technical Specifications for the Safety of Work at Heights of Buildings" explains from a technical perspective how to ensure the safety and health of workers at heights. HG23014—1999 “Safety Regulations for Working at Heights in Plant Areas” and CB3785-1997 “Safety Regulations for Working at Heights in Shipyards” only stipulate the content related to operations at heights from the perspective of the petrochemical industry and the shipbuilding industry.
At present, there are three main problems in the overall situation of safety management of high-altitude operations in China: First, long management and lagging supervision. From the perspective of management system, the construction department, safety supervision department, transportation department, fire protection department, human resources and social security department all have the responsibility of supervising matters related to high-level operation safety within their respective systems. However, at present, operating safety at high altitudes has not yet formed systematic supervision in areas such as mine safety, food safety, and chemical safety, and it has not become a hot spot in the whole society.
Second, laws and regulations need to be further refined. Judging from the four levels of laws, administrative regulations, departmental regulations, and standards in China's legal system, the legal system of work safety at heights needs to be further refined and refined. The current Building Law, Work Safety Law, and Electric Power Law More clear and detailed regulations are needed for the safety of operations at high altitudes.
The third is technological lag. The government's administrative control and policy guidance are only one aspect of ensuring the safety of high-altitude operations. The fundamental solution is to let enterprises engaged in high-altitude operations eliminate outdated operations and adopt advanced construction methods. At present, the methods and methods of working at high altitudes mainly include scaffolding, mobile scaffolding, working baskets and spider man, etc. The construction mode, technology, equipment, construction efficiency and other indicators are relatively backward compared to developed western countries. In addition, some high-altitude operations are in extreme high-altitude environments, which are extremely dangerous; due to backward equipment, they have to use spider-man and other operations, which is extremely challenging for the operator's physiology and psychology.
Reporter: In response to the above problems, please briefly explain the reasons and solutions. Li Shoulin: To ensure the safety of construction workers operating at high altitudes, we should start from two aspects:
The first is to improve regulations and policies. For example, when the relevant laws such as the "Building Law" are revised in a timely manner, it is recommended to increase the special provisions on working safety at heights; relevant departments should promptly formulate departmental regulations specifically for work safety supervision and management at heights, increase the cost of illegal enterprises, and promote their Increase investment and use advanced high-altitude operation equipment to ensure the safety of construction workers. The competent standards department shall update the backward standards in time to make it continuously adapt to the new situation of economic and social development.
The second is to promote advanced construction methods. In 1987, Japan was the first to introduce the "Scaffoldless Operation Method", and then many European and American countries successively introduced "Advanced Aerial Construction Machinery Construction Method" and other advanced construction methods. Since 2000, various countries have promulgated the policy of disabling scaffolding. For special places and local projects that must use scaffolding, very strict approval and supervision policies apply. In recent years, foreign high-altitude operation equipment has gradually developed towards automation and intelligence, and has adopted multiple safety protection systems. Its high-altitude operation equipment is excellent, scaffold-free operation has become the mainstream, and the use of scaffolding has decreased significantly by 80%. occur.
With the strong support of the State Administration of Safety Supervision, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Housing and Construction, and the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, a scientific research team with the Construction Mechanization Branch of the Chinese Academy of Building Sciences as the core, during the "11th Five-Year Plan" period, System research has been carried out, and research results such as "high space work machinery", "bridge inspection and maintenance work vehicles", "altitude work platforms", "external thermal insulation high-rise construction equipment", and "high-altitude lifting machinery safety operation monitoring information systems" have been realized. Industrialization and engineering, significantly reducing the gap between high-altitude operations and foreign construction technology and equipment.
Reporter: Life always comes first. What precautions should be taken to maintain the life safety and health of workers working at height?
Can these measures be effectively implemented and strictly implemented within the enterprise?
Li Shoulin: To maintain the safety of construction workers operating at high altitudes, three points should be achieved:
The first is to promote advanced technology and equipment. Technology and equipment are hardware to achieve high altitude operation safety. Without advanced technology and equipment, the safety of high altitude operations cannot be guaranteed at all. The promotion of advanced technologies and equipment also conforms to the provisions of the Work Safety Law on the need for production units to ensure safe investment. Article 35 of the Work Safety Law states:
"The state implements a phase-out system for processes and equipment that seriously endanger production safety. The specific catalogues shall be formulated and published by the State Council ’s work safety supervision and administration department in conjunction with the relevant departments of the State Council. If there are other provisions in the formulation of catalogues by laws and administrative regulations, the provisions shall apply. The people's governments of the autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government may formulate and publish specific catalogs based on the actual conditions in the region, and eliminate processes and equipment that endanger production safety other than those specified in the preceding paragraph. Production and operation units shall not use processes or equipment that endanger production safety that should be eliminated. "According to this provision, where conditions permit, hoisting of dangerous operations should be replaced by advanced methods such as aerial platforms.
The second is to ensure safe investment in high altitude operations. In the stage of preparing a feasibility study report for a construction project planning and design unit, the budget for safety investment required for each step of construction, operation, and maintenance of the project should be clearly defined, and the technical and equipment costs for high-altitude operations should be clarified, and misappropriation should be prohibited.
The third is to form a training system for high-level operating personnel with Chinese characteristics, and to strengthen the ability training for high-level operating positions. The working environment at high altitudes is special, and the equipment and personal protective equipment systems at high altitudes are relatively complex. Practitioners should be trained in the ability to properly assemble, fix, use and maintain equipment and equipment, and understand the various hidden dangers and injury risks of working at high altitudes. Wait.
In addition to government supervision, public opinion supervision, and labor promotion, the implementation of any security measures requires the help of advanced machinery. The mechanization of working at heights can reduce labor costs, improve work efficiency, attract companies to implement it consciously, and through social organizations to train and transport qualified employees and continuous safety education, finally achieve the purpose of protecting the health and safety of workers at heights. Anti-fall control measures are targeted at different working environments, and appropriate risk control measures are selected to use scaffolds, mobile scaffolds, working baskets at height, safety ropes, and personal protective equipment. In order to achieve intrinsic safety, it is necessary to use a low-risk operation method to replace a more dangerous method, such as using a high-altitude operation platform to replace a relatively poor safety method such as a manual ladder or scaffolding.
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